By D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting
5 Density, t m " 3 Fig. 15 Experimental relationship between P-wave velocity and density. (Nafe and Drake, unpublished data, reproduced in Talwani, Worzel and Ewing (1961). ) 3 km are of course likely to be reduced by microcracks below the values estimated in this way. Permeability is not well estimated from velocity, since although it tends to increase with increasing porosity it is the pattern of connectivity of the pore spaces that is of greatest importance, whilst seismic velocities are reduced by either connected or unconnected poire space.
G. a weight-drop or hammer-blow) to successively longer ranges. 1) as another example of a useful single-channel system, but in general for either refraction or reflection work it is most efficient to gather seismic data in multi-channel form, and 12, 24, 48 or even 96 channels are now in common use. The detectors of such a multi-channel system are usually arranged along a straight profile at right angles to the general strike for simplicity of both operation and interpretation, but the seismogram may include confusing events from reflectors with a component of dip across the profile.
4 that reflections will only be seen if they correlate well across a number of channels of the seismogram, and the variability of reflecting horizons is such that the spacing between geophone groups cannot in practice exceed about 100 m. As before, the number of channels n determines the overall spread length as (n - \)d for a group interval of d, but the geometry of the reflected ray path implies that the subsurface cover is only (n - l)d/2 with the points to which depth estimates are made or depth points being separated by half the group interval: see Fig.
Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting by D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)