By Francois Crouzet
Книга A background of the ecu economic system, 1000-2000 A background of the ecu economic system, 1000-2000Книги Экономика Автор: Francois Crouzet Год издания: 2001 Формат: pdf Издат.:University of Virginia Press Страниц: 329 Размер: 2,4 ISBN: 0813920256 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Considering Europe as an entire instead of as a mosaic of person states, François Crouzet provides right here an obtainable, attractive background of the eu economic system in the course of the moment millennium. Stressing the typical monetary associations shared through the years by way of the various areas of Europe and the networks of family that experience associated them, Crouzet examines pan- ecu alterations and integration instead of only the actual studies of person nations. A historical past of the eu economic climate, 1000-2000 is going past addressing the historic ramifications of alternate within the eu economic system to surround difficulties corresponding to the diffusion of know-how, the migration of capital and hard work, diasporas and minorities, and nationwide variety. via stressing the ancient origins of the force towards eu integration and its development the entire method to the start of the euro, Crouzet offers an unique and complete assessment of eu financial background.
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Additional info for A History of the European Economy, 1000-2000
Soon they had surpluses of grain to send down the rivers to ports on the Baltic coast, for export. A large area of Europe that had been rather wild was thus integrated into its expanding economy. 12 The draining of marshes and reclamation of land from Emergence of a European Economy 17 the sea—by systematic diking—on the coasts of the Low Countries was an important development, and many wetlands were also conquered in the Po valley of northern Italy. Those achievements were the work either of initiatives by peasant communities or of organized settlement by lords, who attracted settlers by offering them various advantages, and who used middlemen (locatores) to recruit and settle them.
In the wide plains of northern and northwestern Europe, many people who had previously lived in dispersed farmsteads also concentrated in villages, which were 18 History of the European Economy smaller than in the south (two to three hundred inhabitants) but generally compact—nucleated or clustered. They were surrounded by open, unenclosed large ﬁelds, divided into long and narrow strips, which were farmed in unison but not communally in the strict sense. Street villages, with one long strip of land behind each farmhouse, were typical of German colonization in the east, but were also found elsewhere.
When the Vikings settled in some western countries— such as Normandy, England, and Sicily—they established well-ruled states. They also turned from pirates to traders, associating plunder and commerce. In order to sell their booty in the Baltic Sea area, they created trading ports along its coasts and developed a network of relations with the hinterland. Vikings from Sweden navigated the rivers of Russia, founding Novgorod, Kiev, and other towns on their banks. In the eighth and ninth centuries, they had relations with Persia through the Caspian Sea and the Volga.
A History of the European Economy, 1000-2000 by Francois Crouzet